Tuesday, April 28, 2009


Our video's intent was to show how under utilized and under appreciated the libraries around campus are. It shows a very interesting side to the divide that we hardly ever mention in class. This is the side with the group of people who are so connected and in tune with today's networking and technology that they do not even need libraries anymore. The fact that there are tons of libraries on campus but the average "interviewee" guess around six or seven prefectly illustrates this point. I thought my group did a great job and it was very fun to see the other videos that have been posted so far.

Thursday, April 23, 2009

Wednesday, April 8, 2009

Hey - I thought I would write about an interesting conversation I overheard at breakfast this morning because it relates to this class. I was sitting at a coffee shop next to a woman (maybe 50 years old) and a man around the same age. They were both using the wireless internet and getting some work done on their computers. The woman was having a hard time accessing the itnernet and was explaining to the man the pressures she felt on staying up to speed with this new technology. She referenced her children and joked about how, if they were there, they would just roll their eyes, click one button, and she would have internet. She also found it interesting that her father who was thirty years older than she is was now e-mailing. I think it is safe to say that before this class, a conversation like that would not have caught my attention, but because of our discussions on different generations' success and struggles in this new era of technology, I thought I would share it with you!

Tuesday, April 7, 2009

Exit, Voice, & Loyalty

The concepts of exit, voice, and loyalty stem from our discussion on the "There Goes The Neighborhood" readings. The theory relating these three can be thought of as a loyalty continuum with exit and voice lying on opposing ends of this spectrum.

When loyalty to a community or neighborhood is low, exit is the likely response for those living there when things begin to go poorly. Alternatively, when loyalty is high, the voice reaction is typically evoked by community members when confronted by an adverse situation.

The voice response means that community members will take an active role in correcting the apparent problem. The exit response simply means that they will begin vacating the community to find homes elsewhere.

Exam- Week 7

Literacy wasn't a concept on the sheet but I think it was still important.

This means having a mastery over the process by means of which culturally significant information is coded. This is important to the digital divide because computer access mirrors this. Many different things are necessary for mastery and it can be mastered at different levels which lead to different levels of power in a community. Breaking the trend of illiteracy and computer illiteracy in order to break the cycle of underdevelopment and exclusion.

Monday, April 6, 2009

Exam 2

How does Warschauer define access?

Warschauer breaks up access into 3 separate parts:

Devices are the physical possession of a computer and having it connected to the Internet. He says that to fully have access however, a user must be computer competent.
Conduits are things like T.V and radio because they are useless without the airwaves that provide information. Internet falls into this because the infrastructure for fiber optic cables need to be set up to provide internet outlets and computers today are not nearly as useful as they can be if they are not used with the Internet.
Literacy follows the idea of "skills access." To actually interact successfully with ICT, a technological knowledge is a necessary skill.


Define and understand the concept of informationalism.

Castells identified four features that distinguish informationalism from the other industrial revolutions: the driving role of science and technology for economic growth; a shift from material production to information processing; the emergence and expansion of new forms of networked industrial organization; and the rise of socioeconomic globalization.

Informationalism represents the third industiral revolution that is shown in table 1.1 on page 13.

Exam 2

What are the new categories of workers (as opposed to the old categories of blue-collar and white-collar workers)? What do workers in the new categories do?

Routine Production Workers-data entry, payroll etc. Do reasonably menial tasks, often involving computers but used for data entry more so than data analysis.

In Person Service Workers-For example janitors, waiters, etc, something that involves face to face interaction.

Symbolic Analysts- The managerial class, counsultants, managers etc. emphasis on analysis, use computers to that end.

Exam Review

What set of features and technology characterize the different industrial revolutions?

First industrial revolution: Late 18th century
-printing press, steam engine, machinery.
-workplace type: workshop
-organization: master/ apprentice. serf.

Second Industrial Revolution: Late 19th century.
-electricity, internal combustion, telegraph, telephone
-workplace: factory
-organization: vertical hierarchy. 

Third Industrial Revolution: Mid to late 20th century.
-transistor, personal computer, telecommunication, internet
-workplace: office
-organization: horizontal networks.

Exam 2

How does van Dijk define access?
He breaks access down into 4 components:
1. Mental Access-which is defined as someone's desire to avail themselves to use the internet and computer.
2. Material Access- The ability to tangibly possess a computer and other tools to use the internet.
3. Skills access-The ability to use a computer.
4. Usage Access-The amount of need you have for the internet.

Exam 2

Week 8:

What are the characteristics of people who are more likely to be online?
  • College graduates
  • Younger generations
  • Men
  • White origin
  • Higher income
  • Professional and managerial jobs

Sunday, April 5, 2009

Exam 2

Week 8: Defining the digital divide

-Understand the difference between stratification and normalization as it relates to technological diffusion.

Stratification and normalization symbolize the two different ways technologies emerge in a society. They are used now to focus on internet access. Stratification says that the groups of people who are well networked or who are ahead in that technological field will stay ahead and always have an advantage in the digital economy; the first wave of people into a technology will continue advancing and the following waves will always be behind. On the other hand, normalization. Normalization acknowledges the fact that some people get the technology or access before others and they are the first wave, but it says that the waves of people that follow will eventually catch up to those who were ahead and everyone will be on the same technological level.

To sum it up...
Stratification- whoever is ahead will stay ahead
Normalization- everyone will end up in the same place

Exam 2

Understand and be able to explain Albert Hirschman's theory of exit, voice, and loyalty.

Exit: Exit is when people move out of their neighborhood because people from other ethnic backgrounds start to move in. The new ethnic group causes fear of negative change in the neighborhood, such as declining property value and raised crime rates. Usually the whole neighborhood will decide to exit if they can afford it, and will try to find a new neighborhood of their own race.

Voice: Voice is when the people of a neighborhood speak their opinions on the new ethnic groups starting to move in. Usually these are negative opinions, and the original people of the neighborhood try to bond together and keep the other races out, whether in a "loud" or simply ignoring way.

Loyalty: Loyalty is how the original people feel towards their neighborhood. The more loyal the people, the higher the chance that they will stay in neighborhood, and possibly be willing to accept the new people and incorporate them into their neighborhood. But loyalty can also mean that the people will stay in their neighborhood and simply ignore the new people, creating two separated racial groups in the same neighborhood.

exam 2

WEEK 8 van Dijk, J. and Hacker, K. (2003) THe digital divide as a complex and dynamic phenomenon. Information Society
How does van Dijk define access?
van Dijk says there are four types of access and barriers to each type:
1. Lack of elementary digital experience caused by lack of interest, computer anxiety, and unattractiveness of the new technology ("mental access")
2. No possession of computers and network connections ("material access")
3. Lack of digital skills caused by insufficient user-friendliness and inadequate education or social support ("skills access")
4. Lack of significant usage opportunities ("usage access")

What are the different types of digital skills?
1. Instrumental skills: the ability to operate hardware and software
2. Informational skills: skills of searching information using digital hardware and software
3. Strategic skills: using information for one's own purpose and position

Saturday, April 4, 2009

Exam 2 Review Guide

Define and understand the concept of informationalism. (Warschauer)

Informationalism is basically the new stage of global capitalism that we are in right now. It is the third industrial revolution, which started in the 1970s. Currently, we have an information economy in which computers and the Internet play an essential enabling role. There are four features that distinguish informationalism from the prior industrial revolution: (1) The driving role of science and technology for economic growth, (2) a shift from material production to information processing, (3) the emergence and expansion of new forms of networked industrial organization, and (4) the rise of socioeconomic globalization.

Because we are currently in this informationalism stage, it is difficult to predict where it will eventually go and what the implications will be. Information and Communication Technology has contributed to a profound change in the real world we live in; yet, because we are still living in this time period, we cannot fully analyze its relation to the digital divide. So, while it is clear that ICTs have changed our world and moved us into this informationalism period, there are still debates and controversies whether or not the digital divide exists and/or where the digital divide will go from here.