Wednesday, May 13, 2009

exam notes - Seattle

Servon, L. J. (2002). Chapter. 8 – Building the Bridge: Learning from Seattle. Bridging
the digital divide: Technology, community and public policy. Wiley, John & Sons,
Incorporated.

Be able to describe some of the solutions that various organizations in Seattle designed to help
close the digital divide.


• gave free internet to community organizations
• created PAN (large online city hall)
•community technology planner (1st city in nation)
• priority funding for community orgs and centers, which hold them obligated and accountable to provide IT support in order to get funding
• invested in community college IT programs and found funders to contribute equipment and curriculum

Bishop Article

In this article, Bishop discusses the information that low-income African Americans search for on the internet. The information that these people were looking for included, Community activities, childcare, healthcare, education, employment, and crime and safety. These low-income families faced barriers to access and could not find the information that they were often looking for. The major problem with this to me is that these families were not trying to access youtube or ebay. Instead, they were trying to better their lives via technology, but were still denied the access. 

Servon

Some solutions organizations designed to help close the digital divide:
1) Seattle public access network- electronic city hall
2)public workstations with access to WWW
3) free web hosting for community organizations
4)CTTAB- advisory board
5) citizen literacy and access fund.
6)TMF- technology matching fund
7)community technology planner
8)SCTA- seattle communication technology alliance: improves the impact, effectiveness, and sustainability of CTC's

Servon

Which Seattle residents were less likely to have access to computers?
-African Americans had less access to computers than Caucasians or  Asian-Americans.
-35% lacked access at time of study
-52% had computers at home
-over half of respondents that lacked access were over 65 years old
-68% qualified as having low incomes
-36% had a high school education or less

Tuesday, May 12, 2009

Exam review- Toward a new agenda

I picked out some important key terms from the last article, "Toward a New Agenda."

To summarize...

Lower order tasks- less sophisticated usage of the internet (instrumental and informational skills)

Higher order tasks- the use of information technology in more strategic ways

CTC: community organization that brings technology to underserved communities, deliver benefits of information age to those who may not have access otherwise

Social leveler- newer technology with the capacity and capability of eliminating inequalities (ex- CTC’s are important for eliminating inequalities but can’t do the job alone)

face-to-face activities: shown through CTC’s and how they bring people together… hands on and personal experience for users, using technology but still interacting with other people

spatial inequalities: geographical inequalities created by the inability to connect to the internet or utilize relevant technology

community-building organization: groups or places that bring people together, have strong ties to a respective community which makes them an important and effective supplement to CTCs

tech fix: the term that describes the myth that technology is primarily a problem solver (won’t operate as a social leveler on its own, need community involvement for it to make progress) 

Final Review-Chatman

How did Elfreda Chatman’s theories about Information Poverty and Life in the Round match the experiences of the Collins family in the documentary Legacy?

Chatman's theories matched the experiences of the Collins family very closely while they were living in the projects and constantly struggling. Chatman's four concepts were secrecy, deception, risk taking, and situational relevance. Nicole was keeping her family's situation secret from her friends at school because of embarrassment, and her aunt Wanda was keeping her addiction problems secret at first also. As for deception, Nicole's mom was deceiving her own situation, not seeing it in reality as Nicole was, and therefore not making much of an effort to change it. She was also keeping from taking risks by not working harder to try and get jobs and make money to support her children. A problem that applied to the Collins family that they unfortunately had no control over was situational relevance. Because they relied so much on what they were told by social services and not going out on their own, they were deprived from a lot of information, such as how to use technology, which Nicole's mom would have benefited in when looking for jobs. Finally, Chatman stated "…life in the round…works most of the time with enough predictability that , unless a critical problem arises, there is no point in seeking information." This definitely applied to the Collins, as for if Nicole's cousin hadn't been shot, they probably wouldn't have been inspired or had the strength to change their lives and pull themselves out of the deeply negative situation they were in.

Final Exam - Bishop

This article described a program that provided home computers to a low-income African American community. What were the information needs of the members of this community (i.e. what type of information were they interested in searching for on the Internet)?

·      Community services and activities

·      Resources for children

·      Healthcare

·      Education

·      Employment

·      Crime and safety

·      General reference tools

Sunday, May 10, 2009

Burkhalter - Reading Race Online

What are some of the issues related to racial identity and online use?

Lacking physical cues that normally are taken as the source of racial identity in face-to-face conversations, racial identification online relies on participants’ perspectives as revealed in their posts. On the Internet, when an author’s racial identification & textual perspective do not agree with a reader’s stereotype, the author’s racial identity can be read so that racial identity & perspective fit the stereotype. Thus, racial stereotypes may be more influential and resilient online rather than offline.

Saturday, May 9, 2009

Final Exam- Jaeger

Jaeger found that 99.6% of all public libraries provided Internet access on their public terminals. However, there were still things related to access that continued the digital divide. What were the issues?

The biggest of these issues appears to be the speed of connection. Rural libraries face much slower connection speeds than urban libraries making some parts of the web hard to access. The rural libraries also, on average, have less access terminals/workstations which can prevent those people from obtaining access. The article stresses that having connectivity is different from have sufficient connectivity that meets the needs of the patrons. Finally, there are also connectivity issues on a state-by-state basis.

Tuesday, April 28, 2009

Video

Our video's intent was to show how under utilized and under appreciated the libraries around campus are. It shows a very interesting side to the divide that we hardly ever mention in class. This is the side with the group of people who are so connected and in tune with today's networking and technology that they do not even need libraries anymore. The fact that there are tons of libraries on campus but the average "interviewee" guess around six or seven prefectly illustrates this point. I thought my group did a great job and it was very fun to see the other videos that have been posted so far.

Thursday, April 23, 2009

Wednesday, April 8, 2009

Hey - I thought I would write about an interesting conversation I overheard at breakfast this morning because it relates to this class. I was sitting at a coffee shop next to a woman (maybe 50 years old) and a man around the same age. They were both using the wireless internet and getting some work done on their computers. The woman was having a hard time accessing the itnernet and was explaining to the man the pressures she felt on staying up to speed with this new technology. She referenced her children and joked about how, if they were there, they would just roll their eyes, click one button, and she would have internet. She also found it interesting that her father who was thirty years older than she is was now e-mailing. I think it is safe to say that before this class, a conversation like that would not have caught my attention, but because of our discussions on different generations' success and struggles in this new era of technology, I thought I would share it with you!

Tuesday, April 7, 2009

Exit, Voice, & Loyalty

The concepts of exit, voice, and loyalty stem from our discussion on the "There Goes The Neighborhood" readings. The theory relating these three can be thought of as a loyalty continuum with exit and voice lying on opposing ends of this spectrum.

When loyalty to a community or neighborhood is low, exit is the likely response for those living there when things begin to go poorly. Alternatively, when loyalty is high, the voice reaction is typically evoked by community members when confronted by an adverse situation.

The voice response means that community members will take an active role in correcting the apparent problem. The exit response simply means that they will begin vacating the community to find homes elsewhere.

Exam- Week 7

Literacy wasn't a concept on the sheet but I think it was still important.

This means having a mastery over the process by means of which culturally significant information is coded. This is important to the digital divide because computer access mirrors this. Many different things are necessary for mastery and it can be mastered at different levels which lead to different levels of power in a community. Breaking the trend of illiteracy and computer illiteracy in order to break the cycle of underdevelopment and exclusion.

Monday, April 6, 2009

Exam 2

How does Warschauer define access?

Warschauer breaks up access into 3 separate parts:
1.Devices
2.Conduits
3.Literacy

Devices are the physical possession of a computer and having it connected to the Internet. He says that to fully have access however, a user must be computer competent.
Conduits are things like T.V and radio because they are useless without the airwaves that provide information. Internet falls into this because the infrastructure for fiber optic cables need to be set up to provide internet outlets and computers today are not nearly as useful as they can be if they are not used with the Internet.
Literacy follows the idea of "skills access." To actually interact successfully with ICT, a technological knowledge is a necessary skill.

Informationalism

Define and understand the concept of informationalism.

Castells identified four features that distinguish informationalism from the other industrial revolutions: the driving role of science and technology for economic growth; a shift from material production to information processing; the emergence and expansion of new forms of networked industrial organization; and the rise of socioeconomic globalization.

Informationalism represents the third industiral revolution that is shown in table 1.1 on page 13.

Exam 2

What are the new categories of workers (as opposed to the old categories of blue-collar and white-collar workers)? What do workers in the new categories do?

Routine Production Workers-data entry, payroll etc. Do reasonably menial tasks, often involving computers but used for data entry more so than data analysis.

In Person Service Workers-For example janitors, waiters, etc, something that involves face to face interaction.

Symbolic Analysts- The managerial class, counsultants, managers etc. emphasis on analysis, use computers to that end.

Exam Review

What set of features and technology characterize the different industrial revolutions?

First industrial revolution: Late 18th century
-printing press, steam engine, machinery.
-workplace type: workshop
-organization: master/ apprentice. serf.

Second Industrial Revolution: Late 19th century.
-electricity, internal combustion, telegraph, telephone
-workplace: factory
-organization: vertical hierarchy. 

Third Industrial Revolution: Mid to late 20th century.
-transistor, personal computer, telecommunication, internet
-workplace: office
-organization: horizontal networks.

Exam 2

How does van Dijk define access?
He breaks access down into 4 components:
1. Mental Access-which is defined as someone's desire to avail themselves to use the internet and computer.
2. Material Access- The ability to tangibly possess a computer and other tools to use the internet.
3. Skills access-The ability to use a computer.
4. Usage Access-The amount of need you have for the internet.

Exam 2

Week 8:

What are the characteristics of people who are more likely to be online?
  • College graduates
  • Younger generations
  • Men
  • White origin
  • Higher income
  • Professional and managerial jobs

Sunday, April 5, 2009

Exam 2

Week 8: Defining the digital divide

-Understand the difference between stratification and normalization as it relates to technological diffusion.

Stratification and normalization symbolize the two different ways technologies emerge in a society. They are used now to focus on internet access. Stratification says that the groups of people who are well networked or who are ahead in that technological field will stay ahead and always have an advantage in the digital economy; the first wave of people into a technology will continue advancing and the following waves will always be behind. On the other hand, normalization. Normalization acknowledges the fact that some people get the technology or access before others and they are the first wave, but it says that the waves of people that follow will eventually catch up to those who were ahead and everyone will be on the same technological level.

To sum it up...
Stratification- whoever is ahead will stay ahead
Normalization- everyone will end up in the same place

Exam 2

Understand and be able to explain Albert Hirschman's theory of exit, voice, and loyalty.

Exit: Exit is when people move out of their neighborhood because people from other ethnic backgrounds start to move in. The new ethnic group causes fear of negative change in the neighborhood, such as declining property value and raised crime rates. Usually the whole neighborhood will decide to exit if they can afford it, and will try to find a new neighborhood of their own race.

Voice: Voice is when the people of a neighborhood speak their opinions on the new ethnic groups starting to move in. Usually these are negative opinions, and the original people of the neighborhood try to bond together and keep the other races out, whether in a "loud" or simply ignoring way.

Loyalty: Loyalty is how the original people feel towards their neighborhood. The more loyal the people, the higher the chance that they will stay in neighborhood, and possibly be willing to accept the new people and incorporate them into their neighborhood. But loyalty can also mean that the people will stay in their neighborhood and simply ignore the new people, creating two separated racial groups in the same neighborhood.

exam 2

WEEK 8 van Dijk, J. and Hacker, K. (2003) THe digital divide as a complex and dynamic phenomenon. Information Society
How does van Dijk define access?
van Dijk says there are four types of access and barriers to each type:
1. Lack of elementary digital experience caused by lack of interest, computer anxiety, and unattractiveness of the new technology ("mental access")
2. No possession of computers and network connections ("material access")
3. Lack of digital skills caused by insufficient user-friendliness and inadequate education or social support ("skills access")
4. Lack of significant usage opportunities ("usage access")

What are the different types of digital skills?
1. Instrumental skills: the ability to operate hardware and software
2. Informational skills: skills of searching information using digital hardware and software
3. Strategic skills: using information for one's own purpose and position

Saturday, April 4, 2009

Exam 2 Review Guide

Define and understand the concept of informationalism. (Warschauer)

Informationalism is basically the new stage of global capitalism that we are in right now. It is the third industrial revolution, which started in the 1970s. Currently, we have an information economy in which computers and the Internet play an essential enabling role. There are four features that distinguish informationalism from the prior industrial revolution: (1) The driving role of science and technology for economic growth, (2) a shift from material production to information processing, (3) the emergence and expansion of new forms of networked industrial organization, and (4) the rise of socioeconomic globalization.

Because we are currently in this informationalism stage, it is difficult to predict where it will eventually go and what the implications will be. Information and Communication Technology has contributed to a profound change in the real world we live in; yet, because we are still living in this time period, we cannot fully analyze its relation to the digital divide. So, while it is clear that ICTs have changed our world and moved us into this informationalism period, there are still debates and controversies whether or not the digital divide exists and/or where the digital divide will go from here.

Thursday, March 19, 2009

One Laptop per Child

Hi everyone, I hope your break is going well! I found the website for the One Laptop Per Child program that we were talking about in section last week and I thought I would share it in case anyone else wanted to learn more about it. Basically, what the program is trying to do is to be able to give a laptop to every child in poorer countries in order to give them hope for the future. The website also shows pictures of more advanced versions of the laptop that they are planning to give out. One fact that I found interesting was that in many countries, less then $20 is spent on a child's education per year. This is a huge difference from the $7,500 spent each child in America per year. But, hopefully, with this program, children in poorer countries can become better educated than they were in the past.

Here is the website for this program: http://laptop.org/en/

Wednesday, March 11, 2009

Movie Resonse: 4

I feel that all the schools depicted had their own positives and negatives about them and that none of them were perfect. However, I feel that of all of the schools the Cupertino school was the most successful. The vast sources of technology available at the school gave students the ability to become truly affluent in computer knowledge. However, schools like Tech High place too much importance on technological learning, to an extreme level. The school in texas, on the other hand, had somewhat of the opposite problem, with some students not using comuters until nearly the twelth grade. I think a balance in technology and traditional education is what is necessary for a school to be successful. In this sense, the Cupertino school seemed to be the best balance, even though their expensive technologies created a lacking in other areas.

Monday, March 9, 2009

Movie prompt #4

I think that the Cupertino was the most successful school in this movie. It is important to learn the ins and outs of technology. Technology is our future and these days the most desirable jobs require complete computer knowledge. Technology is vital for a successful future. I do think, however, that it was sad that other areas of the school struggles dut to lack of funding because of the expenses going to technology. I also think that students need teach interaction to fully learn and with this kind of program/teaching they do not receive that full attention that is essential to learning.

Wednesday, March 4, 2009

Movie response #1

1.         There are many different factors that affect each student. For Luisa there is a time constraint. She does not have a lot of money and therefore works forty hours a week at Long John Silver’s. Thus leaving her with little time to concentrate on her academics. However, Cedra does not seem to have any major problems that might affect her studies. Like Luisa, Travis is short on money and therefore has to put his future plans, college, on hold. Also Travis has a lot of responsibility at home, which takes up a lot of his time and concern. Finally Kep is more similar to Cedra. He continues on to college, CalTech. For Luisa and Travis technology did not solve any of their money problems. Ideally they were studying it to eventually make a living out of it, but they cannot do that without having further schooling. On the other hand eventually technology may help Cedra and Kep make a living out of it.

As I watched the movie, the Tech High School in California seemed like a factory that created mindless workers. The students were not offered a lot of diversity when it came to other interests or activities other than technology (i.e. computers). Throughout the movie I felt that many of the students were being set up for failure due to the fact that now-a-days it is just a pre-requisite to know how to use computers. By having them going to school that is grounded in the idea that technology (computers) is the key to getting a job is setting them up for failure. Yes, computer skills are a basic skill for jobs, but there is a lot more that employers look for other than computer skills. One good example would be social skills, which is very important for having a job. 

Movie Response #4

As I reflect on the three schools from the documentary, many things stuck out. I believe their approaches to technology were good, in that their mentality reflected relevant issues that may pertain to students after graduation and in search of careers. Nowadays, technology is advancing rapidly and everyone from the work force (NASA) to people looking for leisure (youtube.com) is becoming dependent on it. I think learning certain skills that relate to technology are vital for our future. These schools have a good intention but what they’re taking away from students may be a downside to their experiment. We go to school to gain better knowledge in order to further ourselves in life but knowledge does not only consist of books and homework – social skills are also very important.
I believe schools like Tech High may not necessarily fail but instead become something similar to private schools (only certain students desire to go there and those certain students will be the only ones going there) as compared to a public university. But some models were definitely successful, Cupertino for example. Their technology seemed to be of high quality and their students of a greater success rate. However, factors that may influence this deal with the community/environment the school is located in. I’ve learned from many classes how environment plays a big role in students’ desire to learn and expectations for themselves and also, what they’re allowed access to. Unfortunately that has to be the case, but if there were more Cupertino schools I believe these tech schools would be more successful.

Movie Response

Prompt #4: The movie for me was summarized toward the end when a woman (I forget her profession) was interviewed saying that it is not right to have high schools solely for breeding adults to work in the technological workforce for huge companies. Although it provides a motivational force for some of the students and an outlet for gangs and unemployment in their towns, the lack of extra curricular activities and clubs could serve as a disadvantage to these students in their future. One of the schools did not have a football team, and one of the students said that they simply have to leave those things behind. To me, being involved and giving time to recreational sports and clubs keeps students preoccupied and focused on that activity, even if it meant just going to a game and watching it served to keep so many potentially troubled students off the street and getting involved in unhealthy or unsafe activities outside of school. One of the high schools only had computers for every single informational outlet, it didn't appear to have classrooms or library or anything other than computer-centered learning. As this may benefit some who do not have regular access to a computer in their future career, other high schools, especially now, have mandatory computer/technology classes that are sufficient for the basic knowledge needed to succeed later on. 
It is also uncertain the actual amount of jobs are available for graduates who only have an education with computer technology, and whether or not the skills they learned in high school will be out of date in a few years. Also, for many advanced technological companies, humans aren't even used at all and machines are programmed to do most of the work that people used to do. Because of this, I do not think that High Schools such as Tech High are beneficial in the long run for students. It also seems that big software companies have manipulated these students to make them believe that they will undoubtedly succeed in that environment; however, without extracurricular, broad ranged activities, it is likely that social skills needed to succeed in the business world are not being developed. 


Movie Response #1

Although the role of technology in the life paths for these individuals played a prominent part, several other equally as significant factors were also large influences. Among others such as local public school quality and available time for the individuals, I believe the greatest of these other factors to be the level of income and available wealth and assets afforded to the families of these individuals. For example, the families for Kep and Travis were able to afford to send their children to New Technology High School which cost them thousands of dollars per year to do so. On the other hand, Luisa came from a lower income family that could not afford to send her to such a prestigeous academy even if she possessed the skill set to succeed there.
I do not believe technology to be an equalizing factor in the wealth discrepancy issue discussed above. In fact I see it to be the opposite, further increasing the gap in available opportunities lended to these differently classed people. At New Technology High, the students have virtually unlimited access to state-of-the-art computers and technology. However, for those such as Luisa who attend urban public schools and are unable to afford the tuition fees at an academy such as New Tech High, they are undoubtedly at a disadvantage in the realm of technology. The public schools cannot afford the same state-of-the-art technology equipment or as much of it either. In regards to wealth and class discrepancies between those featured in this video, we see that technology is far from the solution.
I ulitmately was surprised at the outcomes for a couple of the individuals, but not some others. To learn that Kep graduated from New Tech as its valdedictorian and went on to attend CalTech came as no great shock to me. From the video, it was clear that he was an intelligent, and focused individual who was given a great opportunuity for success by attending New Tech. However, I was slightly surprised to see Luisa fail the photoshop exam that would have landed her a job at a technology firm. From the video it appeared as she was a determined, hard-working individual having worked so hard to save money for her first computer. I'm surprised that she was unable to carry this sort of work ethic over to her pursuit of a technology position.

Movie Response #4

It was very interesting to see the three completely different types of high school.  Starting off with Tech High, I don't really like the idea of being a completely computer and technology-focused high school.  I think the four years of high school are an extremely important part of every person's life, where they can have many different experiences that can help them grow, such as sports games and rallies, dances, and just social events in general.  I don't think a student experiences the entire "high school experience" if they only specialize in technology.  People should get the most out of their four years in college, and then worrying about specializing in a subject in college.   Although this is not to say that information about technology shouldn't be taught at all, just that it shouldn't be the main focus of an entire school.
Luisa's school, Travis HS, was the complete opposite of Tech High.  It was a public school that lacked the funding that Tech High and Cupertino had.  As a result, the resources where not very great, and it was amazing to see how many of the students had never worked with a computer, since I've been working with computers since the beginning of grade school.  Unfortunately, I don't think this high school will be able to catch up to Tech High or Cupertino since they just don't have the funding necessary.
The high school in Cupertino was the high school in between.  It wasn't nearly as extreme as Tech High, but since it had more funding than Travis High, it had more resources and therefore more opportunities for use of better technologies.  This school was also the more "normal" school when it came to the sporting and social aspects.
I think it was very interesting to see three completely different high schools and how the high school's resources had such an effect on the students' learning.  I think that Tech High is a little too extreme, but that Travis HS is unfortunately a little too unfunded.  I saw Cupertino as a better middle ground.

Tuesday, March 3, 2009

Movie Response

I chose to answer question number 3. I searched monster.com for "tech" jobs. Some of the jobs listed were tax manager, math instructor, mechanical engineer, food technologist, US Navy career opportunities, and broadband technician. All of the jobs at least require a high school diploma, many require a bachelors degree, and the Navy jobs require enrollment in a university. Because of this, the only job Travis would be able to get is a broadband technician, which means all he would be doing was installing and fixing broadband services. Luisa is in the same position, except that if she were able to be accepted into a university, she could also try and get a tech job in the Navy. As for Cedra and Kep, they would be in the position to move on and eventually get the amount of education required to be able to apply for the rest of the jobs listed. Altogether, more than a high school degree is required for almost all tech jobs.

Response 4

The school is a critical factor in the development of a young mind. A quality environment can nurture a student and lead them to great things, while a poor education can thwart even the most promising child's dreams.
I thought that New Technologies mission was a good one, again and again we've seen the value of computer literacy throughout this course, and as more and more labor jobs are shipped abroad computer literacy is a valuable tool to fall back on. Honestly, as a college student I never use hand writing and I don't think a lot of time should be spent on it. Cupertino, which was centered in a wealthy community was able to allocate tons of money towards cutting edge technology, but still had a more traditional high school feel and it seemed that the technology wasn't able to compensate for the lack of other necessities. I don't Luisa's school can catch up until they make an investment towards the future and modernize their curriculum.

Movie Response #4

None of these schools seem successful compared to other government schools.

Travis HS in Austin is a typical example of a school that has failed, and why the current "public" school system in the entire nation needs to be completely reconsidered.  Should a government bureaucrat decide where our children should learn? What they learn? When they get up in the morning? How much should they learn? Freedom is what made America the greatest nation on earth and we do not have much educational freedom left.

New Technology HS is a very gross place.  Learning how to use computers is worthy of maybe 1 hour out of the school day.  But as humans, there are other skills of more importance.  Speaking and handwriting cannot be forgotten.  Most importantly are hands-on skills: the ability to fix things, start a campfire, sow/stich, disecting plants and animals, make a simple electromagnet, cut wood, navigate through nature, etc.  No person is complete without skills like these, yet most people today probably cannot perform many of them.

Cupertino was less extreme than New Technology High, but whether it was a success or not is difficult to say.  It was in a rich community, so it had more funding than the other schools.  But could a private school with that funding do better? Probably yes, if history tells us anything.

Wildcard


In the movie they addressed 4 very different students with 4 very different backgrounds and compared their technology experiences in high school.  The skills that each of them obtained are very valuable in the workforce today, but some more than others.  The two students who went to Tech High School in California both ended up in very different situations after graduation.  In one sense, Tech High could have been beneficial, in the other it could have prevented opportunities.  Travis, who barely graduated from Tech High, decided to get a job right away in order to support his family, so how did Tech High benefit him?  I'm assuming a high school such as that costs more, yet now he is unable to further his tech education due to the fact that he needs to simply take whatever job he can and make money.  His training in a specific area of study is not a bad thing, yet how much of his technology education will he use in the basic workforce he is forced to enter?  

On the other hand, Kep (the valedictorian) earned a scholarship to CalTech, where he will go into engineering.  In his case, Tech High could have quite possibly given him the edge he needed to obtain that scholarship to a prestigious school over other students from regular schools.  I would assume a student who graduated from a Tech High School wold have an advantage over those from average high schools when applying to a school such as CalTech..yet he is missing out on certain clubs and activities that normal schools offer.  UW Madison is an excellent example of a univeristy looking for students with diverse backgrounds who were in a variety of activities within their school and their community.  I can't imagine there were that many diverse programs within Tech High.

Overall, in my opinion, my public high school provided the equipment and the teachers necessary for me to have an average if not somewhat competitive background in technology.  I know this is not the case for all schools, but I feel that my high school technology background was not as intense as Tech High, but the other skills I gained from the wide range of classes I took and the clubs I participated in, along with my average adequacy in technology, has definitely made me a well-rounded student who could hold her own in a variety of fields in the workforce, instead of one specific area (like the students in Tech High).  I believe that the ability to work in a variety of positions along with some technological competency will go a long way in the work force, no matter the state of the economy or what types of jobs are being offered.

Wildcard

5. Wildcard: For this prompt, come up with a response addressing moments that resonated strongly with you in the film (refer to your notes). Consider relating what you saw to your own high school experience. Did things look familiar? Radically different? Naively outdated?

For me, Tech High School really captured my attention. I found the setup of the classes and school to be excellent opportunities for the students to stay up to date with technology and learn numerous skills. They were challenged in different ways to work collaboratively to create projects. I thought this was an excellent way for the kids to learn and to prepare them for careers after high school. All this said, this school is only for those students that going into technology professions. Also, it seemed as though the students were missing out on other key apects of an education, math, history, science, etc..

This school was extremely different from the high school I went to. My high school had sufficient technology for the students to use, but not to the extent of Tech High. My school also had a library and football team. Which I feel, are important to have in an education environment. Having a library creates an environment conducive for studying, reading, and a librarian to assist with the things you need. Though they felt having the internet was sufficient to provide the reading materials, there are some areas that technology can't meet.

I do feel that Tech High is fullfilling its purpose in giving kids an excellent environment and access to technology. When evaluating anything, it is important to not overlook the purpose that the thing is trying to fulfill. And Tech High is serving a technology purpose and for that reason, it is an excellent opportunity. I was also amazed at how the school appeared to work with other schools and agencies to give the students a jumpstart into their future.

Movie Response

I chose question 4 to answer: Think about the students' school environments and other environments (e.g. family, work, friends) surrounding them. What did you think of the approaches to technology in the three different school environments (Austin, Texas, Cupertino, California and Tech High in California)? Do you think any of the models are more successful than others at their mission? Is Tech High, without a football team and a library, the way of the future or an experiment likely to fail? Could a school like Luisa's in Austin ever catch up with others showcased? Give your opinion.

Environment is one of the most important things to the development of young people. And a very important aspect of the environment is for it to be balanced so the adolescent can get exposed to a wide variety of things in their life. This balance extends of course to school as well. A school must have a variety of things to offer for its students so that the students can pick what they want to do and experience everything a school has to offer. Tech High in California does not offer this balance at all.

I think its great that it is so technically integrated, and i think it would be great for all schools to have as much technology as they do, for technology is the present and the future, whether we like it or not. A good grasp of technology will soon be a requirement for almost every job on the market, if it isn't so already. But I still feel that a high school specifically devoted to technology and nothing else will fail utterly. I know that i would never willingly go to a school that didn't offer sports, libraries, books, extracurriculars or basically anything that makes high school fun. High school isn't just about preparing yourself academically for college and the world beyond, its about experiencing as much as you can from a wide variety of sources and for growing as a person and forming relationships outside of the class room and gaining life skills that classes cannot teach you. I hope to god that this school isn't the way of the future, or else our upcoming youth will be extremely smart and technologically savvy but also socially inept, out of shape and not well rounded in the least.

Monday, March 2, 2009

Wildcard Response

When watching the film "Crossing the Divide", I did not see my high school belonging to any of the three high schools in the film. At William B. Travis High School, I was surprised to see that computers, something I am sure most of us take for granted, could have such a huge affect on students and what they do outside of the school day. I have been using computers for as long as I can remember, so I cannot even begin to imagine what it would be like not even being exposed to one until my high school years. At my high school, we not only had multiple computer labs and mobile labs, but we also had classes we could take for credit that would allow us to become more proficient at using certain programs on the computer.

When watching the segment about New Technology High School, I honestly did not like the concept of the way that the school was set up. I think that it is a cool idea to have a school that is based of off using computers, however, I believe it is important to have some traditional high school courses as well since they will need those to prepare for the real world. Also, I think that having after-school clubs and sports are an important part of high school that everyone should have the chance to experience. By having a traditional high school experience, I believe that it helped to better prepare me for college.

Sunday, March 1, 2009

prompt 4

I did not see any of the 3 schools as being as successful as a regular high school, or at least high schools that I am used to. But of the 3 I think Cupertino was the most successful. This school was in the center of a very wealthy community and because of this it was able to provide the latest technology for its students. One of the problems with Cupertino was that it did spend so much money on technology that it lacked in other areas like teachers and the other departments of the school. I find this to be a big problem, especially having inadequate teachers. While technology is great, you cannot learn anything from it if you do not have the proper instruction. There are also many other areas in school that deserve just as much attention as technology. For example, students in Cupertino were very comfortable on the computer, but they lacked skills and knowledge in English.

To me a high school should be a welcoming place and somewhere that student can feel safe. This was one of the major downfalls with the school in Texas. This school was filled with gangs and there was graffiti all over. Trying to learn in this kind of environment would be very stressful and much more difficult, and it shows by the extremely high drop out rate. As for technology, most of these kids never have a chance to work on a computer until they are in 12th grade. I cannot even remember when i first used a computer, but to not have access to that technology until you are a senior in high school would put you at a huge disadvantage. By the time you learned how to use a computer and even type on it, it would be time for college and that person would not have the capability to keep up with and compete with other college students.

Tech High was certainly an extreme example of a technology based high school. I do find that kind of a school to be successful in producing well-rounded students. Acquiring technological skills is only one of the many important areas of high school. By sitting in front of a computer all day how can you learn math or do lab experiments in science class? The biggest concern in my mind is that Tech High offers no extra curricular activities. Besides the fact of kids losing the opportunity to play sports or an instrument, they miss the opportunity to participate in social activities with their peers. There is more to high school than learning stuff out of a book (or off a computer screen). It is also an important time for students to mature socially and gain the people skills they will need to survive when they get out of school.

Movie Response

4. Think about the students' school environments and other environments (e.g. family, work, friends) surrounding them. What did you think of the approaches to technology in the three different school environments (Austin, Texas, Cupertino, California and Tech High in California)? Do you think any of the models are more successful than others at their mission? Is Tech High, without a football team and a library, the way of the future or an experiment likely to fail? Could a school like Luisa's in Austin ever catch up with others showcased? Give your opinion.

I think the approaches to technology in both schools in California were extreme examples, while the approach in Austin, Texas, was more practical/realistic. The Austin high school, even though it was severely lacking in funding and amount of technology available to its students, it was doing the best it could. The principle was encouraging use of the technology, the school partnered with a local industry to create a class dealing with technology, and some of the students were actively pursuing careers in multimedia. Despite these efforts, I do not think that this school could ever catch up with the other schools shown in this movie--there just isn't enough money.

Of the two schools in California, I think Multa Vista High is probably a "better" school, even though its programs outside of technology are relatively poor. Since New Tech High only offered technology classes in the style of working in an industry and graduation was determined by one project, I think that the students who attend that school have a leg up when it comes to getting a job, but it didn't seem like they developed any skills outside of that narrow field. I think that New Tech High is an experiment likely to fail.

Saturday, February 28, 2009

Movie Response - Wildcard

What really resonated with me in this video was how well both the students and the professionals each addressed the fact that the economy in America is changing and that a new workforce is developing. It is very true what they said – that those who do not have the skills and knowledge about new technology will be left behind in the workforce. Technology really is, as the video stated, “the gateway to the new economy,” and when individuals do not have access to that technology, they are automatically limited to the number and types of jobs they can carry.

In terms of the digital divide, many people who are born into low-income and/or minority families do not have access to computers and other technology that are needed to gain the skills and knowledge for certain types of jobs in our new electronic world. Not only is the younger generation in general having to compete with each other in this new economy, but also those who do not have the availability to attain the necessary skills and knowledge do not have the option to get ahead or even in line with their peers. There is an enormous need for these new skills to be learned in order to hold new jobs that technology is creating. The pressure for the younger generation to stay current and ahead of the trends is not equally distributed throughout the population because of the unfortunate lack of access to certain people. As the video said, “computers can change the lives of inner-city children.”

These new high schools specifically designed for teaching technology are able to help give minorities and low-income students a profound and immediate impact in their world of computers and technology. It gives them expertise, and it also changes their attitudes towards computers and technology in general. While cost is always an issue for schools like these to even begin, the benefits for those who would not have otherwise attained these new skills completely makes up for it, especially in their eyes.

- Valerie Figlmiller

"crossing the Divide" response

The movie was very interesting to me because it showed the personal and emotional side of the digital divide, whereas the other articles we've read for class list statistics and numbers, but don't show the real-life struggles and consequences of the digital divide. It shocked me that Luisa had to work for three years to save up for a computer, while the other girl had four computers in her house alone. The idea that Luisa could not get hired and that the other girl went on to a prestigious college further shocked me and made me understand the problems of the digital divide and why it is so important to understand how the divide is created and how it might be possible to "cross the divide". I thought Kep's story was the most promising and hopeful of the video because it showed how someone who is usually left behind in the digital divide, a minority and a n immigrant, can overcome the divide by having access to technology. By having access to technology, Kep was able to receive a good college education, which he could afford due to scholarships. The theme that "technology is the gateway to the economy" stressed the importance of providing teenagers with access to technology and equipping them with the skills needed to survive in the new technology-savvy workplace. Some people in the film advocated schools like New Tech High, but I don't see this as a valid solution to the problem because it is very costly and leaves high schoolers with no room for extra-curriculars, and schools like New Tec don't even offer a library. I think schools like this don't allow kids to become well-rounded individuals, since the students can't develop their interests through extra-curriculars or learn about multiple subjects, they are only immersed in understanding technology. Although technology is important to the future, I don't think it should become the only thing for schools to focus on.

Crossing the Divide Video Reaction

In the video, we observed the effects of technology and the digital divide on 4 young people. There were also several other factors that influenced each of these students chosen paths following their high school graduation. 
Luisa had always been a hard worker, working at a fast food restaurant from the time she was old enough to do so. She saved enough money to finally purchase her own computer, knowing computer skills are extremely important to have in this day and age. While she learned several valuable life skills through her job and in teaching herself how to use a computer, she failed to concentrate on her own education, and did not end up graduating high school on time. Had Luisa not have had to earn her own money from a young age, she may have put her motivated work ethic towards school rather than her fast food job. 
Cedra, on the other hand, received a specialized education focusing on technology, as her school in California was for those who were interested in going into a computer-related field after high school. Cedra was a very bright and motivated student, being the editor of the school newspaper and eventually getting accepted to the prestigious Brown University. Her advanced computer and technology skills gave her the upper hand and proved to be extremely beneficial for her higher education plans.
Travis and Kep were students at New Tech High, which gave students an experience that they would not have been able to get otherwise. Working on small group projects in a business-like environment gave students an excellent real-world experience, but nothing like the typical high school experience. There were no school sports or any fine arts classes. While this doesn't seem typical for high school, it ended up being very helpful for Travis and Kep's education. Travis felt like he wasn't receiving a quality education at his former high school, and after he transferred to New Tech High, he excelled in learning relevant skills needed for today's workforce. Kep also excelled at New Tech High, earning college scholarships after being named valedictorian. This is impressive, considering Kep and his family were immigrants, and he had to learn English as well as learn how to use a computer. Considering his circumstances, technology was the most influential factor to Kep's future, as it helped him better his life and help his family in their adjustment into American society. 

Thursday, February 26, 2009

Video Reaction

5. I chose to pick the wild card option. I was a bit worried when the students talked about making tech schools a universal occurrence. I based my response around why this woudl not be a good thing:
It is easy to see the benefits that woudl come from digitizing Americas schools. It seemed as though the four students that the video focused on were gaining an incomparable edge over other teens but I think they were losing a lot as well. If schools like New Tech High were made universal, students would be deprived of important fine arts education and the schools woudl be distributing funding unfairly.
The students that went to these "Tech Schools" were deprived of art, after school activities, and sports. Although they may not miss these aspects of education now, they are still an important part of the high school experience. I am definitely not an artist but making pinch pots in ceramics' took the edge off calculus. High school students are not adults, meaning that they should be given the opportunity to indulge in the non academic parts of school as well. One woman in the video explained that schools have the job of producing well rounded people that can pursue a life and not just a career. I think that it is nearly impossible to leave a school like New Tech and expect to be well rounded. Also, in my own application experience, having a holistic high school career is important in order to get into college. These students may end up limited in their university options because their education relied so heavily on the following of one career path. These students may feel more prepared for the work force but they are really loosing a part of their high school education and also put at a disadvantage when it comes to their future pursuit of education.
The price tag for creating schools like New Tech High is astronomically high. It is irresponsible to completely digitize every high school for this reason as well because some students may not benefit from the money spent. I was the editor of my high school newspaper like Cedra. I am not usually compatible with comptuers but I learned the inter workings of several adobe programs and fostered an awkward love and page layout. I spent many nights on my computer up until 3am playing with borers and font sizes. The fact that this may seem ludicrous to some is precisely my point. If a school spends millions on installing state of the art programming and forcing students to learn how to use them they could be wasting time and money on uninterested students. I would have loved a class on page design but this does not mean the average high school student would benefit from it. By specializing all schools in order to close the digital divide, many students may be kept from learning what they actually want to learn. Schools should not
By forcing schools to teach their students only to deal with computers they are not producing well rounded individuals and keeping some from pursuing other goals.

Crossing The Divide Response

Luisa certainly had a few things that held her back such as her financial situation and her full time job. Technology helped her in that it prevented her from being in gangs at her school and provided her with a way to help her family, but I was surprised to find out she failed the photoshop exam. It was not surprising to find out that Cedra ended up becoming successful because she entered the scene already financially well off and technologically competent and didn't have the struggles that Luisa had to deal with.
Travis had a lot going on in his life just as Luisa did. He had to be the "man of the house" and was living with a family that had to support 8 people. Technology helped him a great deal because he was able to ignore the stereotypes and become a computer savvy student and, surprisingly, graduates after a senior project meltdown.
Kep had the most interesting story because he was an immigrant who had to learn many languages to help get by and support his family. Technology helped him as well because he was able to interact with people who shared the same passion for technology as he had and was able to integrate himself better into society.

Tuesday, February 24, 2009

Midterm: Week 5

What is “cyberpower”? Define its three forms: individual, social and ideological.

Cyberpower - the effect of online activity on power - can be measured and mapped.
individual - gaining skills and connections for oneself
social - gaining skills and connections for a group
ideological (imaginary) - gaining skills and making connections in order to advance the imaginary; a vision, a movement, an ideological purpose.

 How do CTCs/computing and Internet access create, enable or enhance “cyberpower”?  
"CTCs gain computer-related job and job-hunting skills as well as advances in the areas of employment, learning, increased confidence and sense of community... CTCs are popular with all ages, provide a wide variety of benefits and offer management sustainability challenges to their operators."

Monday, February 23, 2009

Midterm Question

The most obvious thing that separates the Near North Library from other libraries is that it brings two completely opposite communities together. One way this is done is particularly interesting. Page 36 mentions that "Some of them [children from Cabrini Green] work with the volunteers in the Homework Help program, most of whom are Gold Coast residents, retirees looking for satisfying and interesting ways to stay connected with the world." I thought this was interesting because it's an idea of integrating communities that I haven't seen implemented in libraries so much as just in schools.

Midterm

The authors invoke Castells’ “dual city”? What is it? Briefly identify.

"By dual city, I understand an urban system socially and spatially polarised between high value-making groups and functions on the one hand and devalued social groups and downgraded spaces on the other hand... The power of new information technologies, however, enhances and deepens features present in the social structure and in power relationships."

P. 181 - Abdul Alkalimat and Kate Williams "Social capital and cyberpower"

Week 05 Communities, Learning and Democracy in the Digital Age

Connectivity: As quoted directly from the text, the level of a communitys high-speed connectivity can be measured in different ways: "a) points of access availability at public sites such as schools, libraries or community centers, in the home, in businesses or institutions, b) the number of Internet Service Providers  that offer high-speed Internet service in a community, c)and/or, the type and speeds of service offerings available from high-speed Internet providers DSL, cable modem, wireless, t1.5, DS3, etc."
Basically, just having access to internet is sometimes not enough.  Some web pages are becoming increasingly more complex and are requiring high-speed Internet connections that some households and communities do not have the capability to obtain...such as a "broadband digital divide."  Again, this is another barrier for underserved communities to access vital information.

Capability: As we said in discussion, words such as "education, proficiency, and skills" are also adequate in defining this term.  Capability "gauges the ability to deliver or acquire the service."  Skill in this article, is defined as having a technological understanding and the willingness to adapt to new technologies and ways of thinking.  It can also include teaching effective use of info. tech. tools and "encouraging creativity, productivity, and innovations of local entrepreneurs"  So in this case, skill is not simply referring to computer skills, but the ability to adapt to changes in the technological world and develop new skills when required.

Midterm

 “Chapter 2 – Branch libraries: The heartbeat of the community.” In Better together: Restoring the American community (pp. 34-54). 

What were some special or innovative features of Chicago's Near North Branch Library? 

This library is physically appealing to the eye, encompassed with shrubs and flowers on the outside and with a large parking lot. It has meeting rooms available for classes, discussions, and neighborhood groups. They have an after school volunteer program called the Homework Help program, and the meeting rooms are used for finance workshops, job skills classes, teachers' in-service training, and more. Internet is accessible here and high school and college age "cybernavigators" teach basic computer and Web-search techniques

What were two goals local politicians and community leaders hoped to accomplish with its construction? The mayor hoped that locating Near North on the border between a run-down neighborhood and an affluent neighborhood would encourage improvements in the run-down neighborhood and bring together residents of the two neighborhoods who had no contact with each other otherwise. This library successfully bridge the two neighborhoods.  

How did location play a role in the creation of the library? 

The Near North Branch sits between two very different neighborhoods. One side is along the shore of Lake Michigan, which is wealthy and mainly white. The other neighborhood is known for its grim, high-rise public housing and crime. The location for The Near North Branch was not an accident, the building and everything inside of it all reflect the determination to make the library attractive to the whole range of potential users. The Mayer refers to the neighborhood library as the "heartbeat" of the community. The site of the library is in the run-down neighborhood, however, constructors hoped it would be close enough to the affluent neighborhood that it would still appeal to its residents. Despite its location, residents from both sides of the community soon partook in the libraries services, due to its aura of safety and appeal. 

These answers can be found on pages 2-4


Race and Place

What social and community changes prompted Hall's visit to the white cathedral?

Tracie Hall was growing up during an era of segregation. In an effort to desegregate, schools at that time would bus children from all black or white schools, to schools of the opposite race. "It was on of those "let's pretend to be pro-integration" exercises that post-Brown v. Board of Education schools engaged in back then." Hall was brought to see the white cathedral to try and expose her and her African American peers to the "white" side of town. On the tail end of the segregation era in the South, the government was attempting to integrate by simply exposing people to the other way of life. In Hall's case, it ended up backfiring, when she returned to the library and was so turned off that she didn't even take out a book. 

Week 04: Koontz, Jue, and Lance Article

Question: Circulation statistics, an easy measure to take, come back up in this article. Why are these problematic? What kinds of materials do they miss? What kinds of use and users do they miss? What can the outcome be of low circulation statistics?

Answer: Circulation statistics may be one of the easier statistics to take from a library, but they miss many of the libraries current-day functions, such as Internet use, in-library use of materials, programs hosted by the library, questions asked of the librarians, and other activities related to these. Since many low-income or rural families go to the library to use the Internet or to attend activities, their participation in the system may be overlooked if the only statistic being used is the circulation data. The outcome of having poor circulation statistics could be a severe drop in funding, which could cause the library to close. If the library has poor circulation and poor attendance, etc., this could be warranted. If the library has poor circulation but is actually utilized by the community it serves, it could lose funding when it needs it most.

I think a better way of measuring library use would be to include many kinds of statistics, a good deal of which would be easier to compile with today's technology. If the researching party looked at circulation along with factors like number of visitors, time spent on the Internet, attendance of library activities, and inquiries made to the librarian, the data would be much more comprehensive, which is what the researchers in this article discovered.

What is Social Capital?

The concept of social capital is rather simple, but giving an basic all-encompasing definition of the term is not very simple. Most definitions given seem incomplete or a little off. Many thoughtful people have placed slightly different meanings to social capital. I chose to answer this simple question because it bugs me that I keep finding different answers whenever I look it up.

As an engineer, I will try to apply a universal meaning to the term. Know that "capital" is the means of production, and "social" is relating to human society and its members. A "society" is an extended social group having a distinctive cultural and economic organization.

Therefore, "social capital" must be the capability of a society and its members to engage in social interactions and activities within that society.

I am not fond of the term social captial anyway because usually capital is associated with money, so the term reminds me of the infamous socialist (communist) policy of treating human beings as capital such as machinery with finite value.

Terms for "Neighborhood Analysis of Public Library Use in NY City"

· What is GIS, and how and why did the researchers use it in the context of this study? Why were notions of space important?

GIS stands for "geographic information system". It is a method that was applied in the software used to define the boundries for the space polygons representing "neighborhoods" in this particular study. The notions of "space" were important in this study in order to correlate travel distance and circulation statistics for a library within a given neighborhood.

· What is “central-place theory”?

Central-place theory refers to a centralized location (in this case a library) within a region where travel time to it from its boundries is approximately the same

· How did the researchers define “neighborhoods”?

In this study, a neighborhood was defined as a region of space containing one library exhibiting the central-place theory. The boundries of each neighborhood were also equidistant from the adjacent neighborhood library and its own library

Midterm

Give an example of both bridging and bonding social capital.  Which one is inclusive and external, and which, exclusive and internal?  Which one is "glue" and which one is "WD-40?"

Bridging social capital is inclusive and external, while bonding social capital is exclusive and internal.  "Examples of bonding social capital include ethnic fraternal organizations, church-based women's reading groups, and fashionable country clubs.  Other networks are outward looking and encompass people across diverse social cleavages.  Examples of bridging social capital include the civil rights movement, many youth service groups, and ecumenical religious organizations.  (Putnam 22).  I would say that bridging social capital is glue because it tries to bring all different types of people together; on the other hand, bonding social capital is WD-40 because because it "repels" people that aren't similar to the people in the group.

Sunday, February 22, 2009

Cenral-Place Theory

What is "central-place theory"?
(p448) It is a location theory in geography explaining the location of consumer services such as library service. Accounts for travel time of library users, distance between libraries, or size of the library market area in the studies of library accessibility.

How did the researchers define "neighborhoods"?
(p449) They define the neighborhoods based on the market areas of the libraries and they only study the attributes of neighborhoods that influence the use of the public library. The most important attributes they study are social and spatial interactions.
"A limited territory within a larger urban area, where people inhibit dwellings and interact socially" or a geographic unit "within which certain social relationships exist."

week 04: Koontz, Jue, and Lance article

Question: How do libraries fulfill a role in the process of lifelong learning for low income persons?

The answer to this study question can be found on page 30 of the article at the bottom. The article states, "Public libraries are one of the few if not only public information resources in areas having a high concentration of low-income individuals." They contribute to lifelong learning because low income individuals have less access to information resources and fewer options for education. The authors emphasize that, "public libraries are vital in diminishing the information gap between the technical elite and the technical poor".

Pragmatic Technology

Define: pragmatic technology - "encompasses the common language notion of how to design tools to meet real human needs and accommodate users and their lived situations. It also sees ICTs as developed within a community of inquiry and embodying both means of action and forms of understanding; ICTs are an end result of as well as a means to accomplish, community work." Pg. 8

Types of Social Capital

Give an example of both bridging and bonding social capital. Which one is inclusive and external, and which, exclusive and internal? Which one is “glue” and which one is “WD-40”?

Bonding Social Capital-Could be something like an a specific religious sect or club based on ethnicity, while a bridging social club could be a weekend softball team or a poker club, where the people are heterogenous. Bonding is Exclusive and Internal while bridging is Inclusive and external. Bonding is Glue and Bridging is Wd-40.

Midterm

Neighborhood-based in-library use performance measures for public libraries: A nationwide study of majority-minority and majority white/low income markets using personal digital data collectors 

Why are circulation statistics problematic?
(pg 29)- Circulation is the most universally collected statistic. Because of its widespread availability, circulation data are often used to measure the effectiveness and value of library service to a community... however, now that books are no longer the primary medium of information transfer and communities are no longer homogeneous, this approach is "no longer effective today as it ignores information that could be key in making critical decisions about today's public libraries." This is because there are new media formats (such as audio, videos, and other electronic resources) that constitute library use that are not included in circulation statistics. Also, circulation may be declining for some libraries "because of increased internet demand by local government and library administrators." (pg 31)

What can the outcome be of low circulation statistics?
(pg 30)- "it is critical that public library decision makers have data that enable them to measure performance and use, and assess needs, in vulnerable and diverse neighborhoods." So, without circulation statistics, this would not be possible.

What is the stated goal of this study?
(pg 32)- this study was designed to "research, demonstrate, and validate the critical need for 'neighborhood-level' library data to assist public librarians in assessing and addressing the needs of their particular library outlet's 'market-area.'"

What are some alternative measures of library use?
(pg 44-45)- reading/writing, browsing, using computers, checking out/using library card, library programs/tours, sitting alone/socializing, schoolwork, non-library programs, and other non-specified activities